Anabolic Steroids

Thursday 17th April 2014

Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of the male sex hormone testosterone. They were developed during the Second World War and used originally to allow weakened and malnourished prisoners of war better convalescence. They were also used for their protein anabolic effect in consumptive diseases and muscle atrophy as well as a remedy for anemia. Very soon, they also found application in sports where they were administered as illegal doping to improve performance in healthy athletes. In medicine, anabolic steroids are still at a failure of the testes (lack of education endogenous testosterone) in growth disorders or physical weakness (eg in the elderly) are used. Generally, they belong to the group of anabolic steroids.

Doping
Anabolic steroid hormones represent the group of doping substances most commonly used dar. According to calculations of the Italian scientist Alessandro Donati Sport 700 tons of anabolic steroids a year of 15 million consumers are misused for doping purposes worldwide . 
 
The fitness and recreational sports ( originally from the bodybuilding scene) is now very widespread abuse of these drugs and is referred to there dangerously playing down only as a cure . One of the few has become known through the media deaths , such as that of the professional bodybuilder Andreas Munzer 1996 , and knowledge of deaths and amateurs have hardly led to a reduction . The in the media ( Hollywood action films , soaps , beauty advertising, etc.) is continually growing presence and consciously promoted through glorification of a muscular body has in the last ten years in adolescents and adult men to an unusual increase of anabolic steroids abuse and to a dangerous acceptance of this bill aesthetics in society out . The psychological dependence , which is caused after short-term use of anabolic steroids, is closely comparable according to the current state of knowledge of science with the dependencies to classical drugs.
 
Another factor driving the ever-increasing consumption of anabolic steroids is certainly seen in the demands of today's competitive society . According to the study British Crime Survey men take in the UK alone approximately 42,000 people, mostly ( unreported cases is much higher ) , steroids . researchers assume that a significant proportion of heart -related deaths among young athletes from various disciplines in Germany on steroids could go back to abuse. 
 
Anabolic steroids were first banned in 1974 after it was developed detection method for degradation products of synthetic hormones. At the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal , there was then for the first time controls on synthetic anabolic steroids , in 1984, the application of the endogenous steroid hormone testosterone is banned , but the detection of doping with endogenous hormones remains to this day difficult. Gifts of natural testosterone can not be traced , so in the tests , the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone is determined . If the testosterone control value above the specified value, the athlete must demonstrate by means of a long-term control that he naturally has an elevated testosterone levels. This test quickly had the consequence that epitestosterone was taken in addition , so once this substance on the Prohibited List 1992 - whereupon the pregnancy hormone HCG in the doping scene was interesting , to keep the testosterone levels within the required limits. Back in 1983, is HCG have also found wide application in cycling .
 
The synthetic anabolic most misused include Chlorodehydromethyltestosterone , nandrolone ( nortestosterone = ) , Trenbolone Methandrostenolone Stanozolol and Methenolone . Since 1998, so-called prohormones of testosterone and nortestosterone are abroad , especially in the United States , acted as dietary supplements. The application of this Vorhormone is also prohibited in sport.
 
Body composition and strength improvements
A review spanning more than three decades of experimental studies in men found that body weight may increase by 2–5 kg as a result of short-term (<10 weeks) AAS use, which may be attributed mainly to an increase of lean mass. Animal studies also found that fat mass was reduced, but most studies in humans failed to elucidate significant fat mass decrements. The effects on lean body mass have been shown to be dose-dependent. Both muscle hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibers have been observed. The hydration of lean mass remains unaffected by AAS use, although small increments of blood volume cannot be ruled out.
 
The upper region of the body (thorax, neck, shoulders, and upper arm) seems to be more susceptible for AAS than other body regions because of predominance of androgen receptors in the upper body. The largest difference in muscle fiber size between AAS users and non-users was observed in type I muscle fibers of the vastus lateralis and the trapezius muscle as a result of long-term AAS self-administration. After drug withdrawal, the effects fade away slowly, but may persist for more than 6–12 weeks after cessation of AAS use.
 

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